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JSON Signing

JSON claim objects need to be signed. If I want to distribute a Camli blob object publicly, declaring that I “favorite” or “star” a named entity, it should be verifiable.


The properties we want in the JSON file, ideally, include:

GOAL #1) it’s still a valid JSON file in its entirety

This means no non-JSON compliant header or footer.

This implies that the data structure to be signed and the signature metadata be separate, in an outer JSON wrapper.

This has been discussed and implemented in various ways. For example, in jchris’s canonical-json project, http://github.com/jchris/canonical-json, the “signed-content” and the “signature” are parallel objects under the same outer JSON object.

The problem then becomes that the verifier, after parsing the JSON blob, needs to re-serialize the JSON “signed-content” object, byte-for-byte as in the original, in order to verify the signature.

In jchris’ strategy, the canonicalization is implemented by referencing JavaScript code that serializes it. This has the advantage that the serialization could change over time, but the disadvantage that you have to embed a Rhino, V8, SpiderMonkey, or similar into your parser, which is somewhat heavy. Considering that canonical JSON serialization is something that should be relatively static and could be defined once, I’m not sure that the flexibility is worth the cost.

Overall, though, the jchris approach’s structure of the JSON file is good.

Notably, it satisfies on of my other goals:

GOAL #2) The document still be human-readable

For instance, the laptop.org project is proposing this Canonical JSON format: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Canonical_JSON. Unfortunately, all whitespace is stripped. It’s not a deal breaker, but lacks human readableness.

You might say, “Bring your own serialization! Wrap the signed-content in a string!”

But then you’re back to the readable problem, because JSON strings can’t have embedded newline literals.

Further, the laptop.org proposal requires the use of a new JSON serialization library and parser for each language which wants to produce camli documents. This isn’t a huge deal, but considering that JSON libraries already exist and people are oddly passionate about their favorites and inertia’s not to be ignored, I state the next goal:

GOAL #3) Don’t require a new JSON library for parsing/serialization

With the above goals in mind, Camli uses the following scheme to sign and verify JSON documents:


(The output file is in signing-before.camli.detachsig)

… where <S> is the single-line ASCII base64 detached signature. Note that there are exactly 13 bytes before <S> and exactly 3 bytes after <S>. Those must match exactly.

(The output file is in signing-after.camli)

In review:

O == the object to be signed
J == any valid JSON serialization of O
T == J, with 0+ trailing whitespace removed, and then 1 '}' character
S == ascii-armored detached signature of T
C == CONCAT(T, ',"camliSig":"', S, '"}', '\n')

(strictly, the trailing newline and the exact JSON serialziation of the camlisig element doesn’t matter, but it’d be advised to follow this recommendation for compatibility with other verification code)


Let’s call the bytes before that ‘BP’ (“bytes payload”) and the bytes starting at that substring ‘BS’ (“bytes signature”)


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